''E-learning Engagement Gap During School Closures: Differences by Academic Performance" with Alaitz Ayarza-Astigarraga and Marta C. Lopes
We study the impact of COVID-19 school closures on differences in online learning usage by regional academic performance. Using data from Google Trends in Italy, we find that during the first lockdown, regions with a previously lower academic performance increased their searches for e-learning tools more than higher-performing regions. Analysing school administrative and survey data before the pandemic, we find that both teachers and students in lower-performing regions were using no fewer e-learning tools than higher-performing ones. These two findings suggest that the COVID-19 shock widened the e-learning usage gap between academically lower and higher-performing regions. Exploiting the regional variation in school closure mandates during the 2020-2021 academic year, we report that the patterns detected after the first lockdown were no longer present. Regions with different previous academic performance had the same response in terms of online learning usage when faced with stricter school closures.
"Reverse Revolving Doors: The Influence of Interest Groups on Legislative Voting" with Miguel Alquézar-Yus
This paper investigates to which extent legislators with a background in an interest group (i.e., reverse revolvers) influence their peers’ voting behavior. To answer this question, we collect novel data containing the universe of votes cast at the European Parliament between 2004 and 2019 and characterize legislators by their former working experience. We leverage a natural experiment by which seats at the European Parliament are assigned alphabetically to provide a causal estimation. We find that seating beside a reverse revolver when the motion is relevant to her interest group increases the co-voting probability by 2.4%, attendance by 1.3%, and decreases abstention by 9%. We find no influence on non-relevant ballots. These effects are driven by budget-related motions and female legislators. Our results suggest that revolving doors are problematic for the political process even when working in reverse.
"Gender Differences in Early Occupational Choices: Evidence from Medical Specialty Selection" with Agnès Charpin
[Earlier versions: SSRN, EUI WP]
Gender-based occupational segregation remains the most important measurable driver of gender wage gaps. It is however difficult to disentangle the channels via which gender differences in occupational choices arise. We analyse these differences using the French centralised medical residency selection mechanism, a unique labour market setting in which observed matches are solely determined by supply-side factors. We start by showing that, akin to occupation, specialty of practice is the most important driver of gender earnings gaps in the medical profession. We show that men and women facing the same occupational choice set make drastically different occupational choices. Women are more likely to choose medical specialties that pay less, have lower time requirements, more interactions, are more socially oriented and less competitive. We then administer a survey to prospective medical residents right before they make their choice to understand these differences. Using both a hypothetical job choice framework and stated preferences, we find that women care more about the schedule flexibility and social component of their job, and men about the job's content, prestige, and income levels. The differences in taste for time flexibility are driven by women who are in a relationship and those who wish to have children in the near future, which uncovers an anticipation effect of fertility on women's career choices. Our results indicate that individual preferences play a determinant role in explaining gender-based occupational segregation.
Work in Progress
"Effects of Early Infancy Care on Subsequent Infant Health"
[Draft available upon request]
This paper studies the causal effects of additional early infancy care on several subsequent fertility outcomes. I exploit the eligibility discontinuities of a welfare policy in Spain that entitles parents of newborns with birth weights below certain thresholds to receive monetary payments to devote themselves to the care of their child as well as to fully funded social security contributions. Using birth register data, I measure the effect of the reception of such social benefits on health outcomes of subsequent newborns and subsequent pregnancy conditions.