Empirical evidence shows that men and women hold different types of occupations and their relevance for the gender wage gap. It is however difficult to disentangle the channels via which these differences come about because observed equilibrium outcomes arise from preferences of agents on both sides of the market, and are often hindered by search and matching frictions. This paper uses the French centralised medical residency selection mechanism, a unique labour market setting in which observed matches are solely determined by supply-side factors. We find that men and women facing the same occupational choice set make drastically different occupational choices. Medical specialties selected by women pay less, have lower time requirements, less competition, more interactions, and a higher social contribution. We then administer a survey to prospective medical residents to understand the drivers of the observed gender-based occupational segregation. We find that women care more about the social component and the schedule flexibility of their job, while men about the job's content, prestige and income levels. However, when focusing on individuals who prefer similar specialties, these gender differences are greatly reduced. Gender differences in taste for time flexibility are largest among individuals who are in a relationship and especially for those who wish to have children in the near future, uncovering an anticipation effect of fertility on career choice for women. Finally, we validate our results by matching respondents to the specialty they choose. Our results suggest that individual preferences play a determinant role in explaining gender-based occupational segregation.
"Effects of Early Infancy Care on Subsequent Infant Health"
[Draft available upon request]
This paper studies the causal effects of additional early infancy care on several subsequent fertility outcomes. I exploit the eligibility discontinuities of a welfare policy in Spain that entitles parents of newborns with birth weights below certain thresholds to receive monetary payments to devote themselves to the care of their child as well as to fully funded social security contributions. Using birth register data, I measure the effect of the reception of such social benefits on health outcomes of subsequent newborns and subsequent pregnancy conditions.